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Biblical Integration Case Study Ralph Emerson was an employee of Boston Bank.

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Biblical Integration Case Study Ralph Emerson was an employee of Boston Bank. He started as a teller in the Roxbury Branch, and was quickly promoted to the Customer Service Team Leader position due to his care and concern for bank customers.

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individual difference project

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Individual Difference Research Project
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Abstract
There has been advanced research in the development of parameters in psychology that measure various personality traits such as conscientiousness, extraversion, openness to experience, neuroticism and aggressiveness (Eggen, 1999). However, there have been little research in evaluating and testing more

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Solutions: Ch31 Impacts – Government Borrowing

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=&0=& =&1=& =&2=& When governments are borrowers in financial capital markets, which of the following is least likely to be a possible source of the funds from a macroeconomic point of view? A. central bank prints more money B. increase in household savings C. decrease in borrowing by private firms D. foreign financial investors Answer: A  Reference: Explanation: Type: Multiple Choice =&3=& A country’s economic data indicates that there has been a substantial reduction in the financial capital available to private sector firms. Which of the following most likely had the greatest influence on this economy? A. especially large and sustained household saving B. increased borrowing by private firms C. reduction in influx of funds for foreign financial investors D. especially large and sustained government borrowing Answer: D  Reference: Explanation: Type: Multiple Choice =&4=& If a country’s economic data shows private savings of $300 million, government spending of $350 million, tax revenue of $400 million, and a trade surplus of $75 million, then what does investment equal? A. $775 million B. $475 million C. $275 million D. $700 million Answer: C  Reference: Explanation: Type: Multiple Choice =&5=& If a country’s economic data shows private savings of $500 million, government spending of $300 million, tax revenue of $400 million, and a trade surplus of $100 million, then what does investment equal? A. $600 million B. $500 million C. $700 million D. $900 million Answer: B  Reference: Explanation: Type: Multiple Choice =&6=& If a country’s economic data shows private savings of $400 million, government spending of $250 million, tax revenue of $400 million, and a trade surplus of $175 million, then what does investment equal? A. $550 million B. $425 million C. $800 million D. $375 million Answer: D  Reference: Explanation: Type: Multiple Choice =&7=& If a country’s economic data shows that private savings equal $250 million, government spending equals $400 million, taxes equal $350, and the trade surplus equals $150 million, then what does investment equal? A. $50 million B. $75 million C. $450 million D. $350 million Answer: A  Reference: Explanation: Type: Multiple Choice =&8=& If a country’s economic data shows that private savings equal $300 million, government spending equals $400 million, taxes equal $300, and the trade surplus equals $100 million, then what does investment equal? A. $150 million B. $175 million C. $200 million D. $100 million Answer: D  Reference: Explanation: Type: Multiple Choice =&9=& If a country’s economic data shows that private savings equal $350 million, government spending equals $375 million, taxes equal $300, and the trade surplus equals $125 million, then what does investment equal? A. $50 million B. $150 million C. $425 million D. $600 million Answer: B  Reference: Explanation: Type: Multiple Choice =&10=& In the national savings and investment identity framework, an inflow of savings from abroad is, by definition, equal to: A. private sector investment. B. the trade surplus. C. the trade deficit. D. domestic household savings. Answer: C  Reference: Explanation: Type: Multiple Choice =&11=& From a macroeconomic point of view, which of the following is a source of demand for financial capital? A. savings by households and firms B. foreign financial investment C. domestic household private savings D. government borrowing Answer: D  Reference: Explanation: Type: Multiple Choice =&12=& The U.S. economy has two main sources for financial capital; _______________________ and ____________________________. A. private savings from U.S. households and firms; inflows of foreign financial investment. B. private sector investment; government borrowing C. private savings from U.S. households and firms; government borrowing D. private sector investment; inflows of foreign financial investment from abroad Answer: A  Reference: Explanation: Type: Multiple Choice =&13=& If the quantity of financial capital supplied is equal to the quantity of financial capital demanded then, the national savings and investment identity is written as: A. (M – X) – S = (G + T) – I B. S + (M – X) = I + (G – T) C. S + (G – T) = I – (X – M) D. S = (X – M) – (G – T) Answer: B  Reference: Explanation: Type: Multiple Choice =&14=& When a government records a budget surplus, the national savings and investment identity is written as: A. S = I + (G – T) + (X – M) B. S + (M – X) + (T – G) = I C. S – (G – T) = I – (X – M) D. S + (T – G) = 1 + (X – M) Answer: B  Reference: Explanation: Type: Multiple Choice =&15=& When a government records a trade surplus, the national savings and investment identity is written as: A. S = (G – T) + (X – M) – I B. S – (G – T) = I – (X – M) C. S = I + (G – T) + (X – M) D. S + (G – T) = I – (X – M) Answer: C  Reference: Explanation: Type: Multiple Choice =&16=& A __________________ often results in an outflow of financial capital leaving the domestic economy and being invested in the global economy? A. trade surplus B. trade deficit C. fiscal deficit D. twin surplus Answer: A  Reference: Explanation: Type: Multiple Choice =&17=& A prolonged period of budget deficits may lead to ___________________. A. outflows of financial capital abroad B. lower inflation C. lower economic growth D. increasing exchange rates Answer: C  Reference: Explanation: Type: Multiple Choice =&18=& A ___________________________________ can lead to disruptive economic patterns and heavy strains on a country’s banking and financial system. A. prolonged period of trade surpluses B. sustained pattern of large trade deficits C. prolonged period of budget surpluses D. sustained pattern of large budget deficits Answer: D  Reference: Explanation: Type: Multiple Choice =&19=& Which of the following is least likely to be the result of economic disruptive patterns caused by a prolonged period of government budget deficits? A. high inflation B. substantial inflows of foreign financial capital C. increasing exchange rates D. strains on a country’s financial system Answer: C  Reference: Explanation: Type: Multiple Choice =&20=& An increase in government borrowing can: A. allow private investment to expand. B. crowd out private investment in physical capital. C. increase the incentive to invest in technology. D. cause a substantial decrease in interest rates. Answer: B  Reference: Explanation: Type: Multiple Choice =&21=& A reduction in government borrowing can: A. decrease the incentive to invest. B. increase the interest rate. C. crowd out private investment in human capital. D. give private investment an opportunity to expand. Answer: D  Reference: Explanation: Type: Multiple Choice =&22=& When the interest rate in an economy increases, it is likely the result of either: A. a decrease in the government’s budget surplus or an increase in its budget deficit. B. a decrease in the government budget surplus or its budget deficit. C. an increase in the government budget surplus or a decrease in its budget deficit. D. an increase in the government budget surplus or its budget deficit. Answer: A  Reference: Explanation: Type: Multiple Choice =&23=& When the interest rate in an economy decreases, it is most likely as a result of: A. an increase in the government budget surplus or its budget deficit. B. a decrease in the government budget surplus or its budget deficit. C. an increase in the government budget surplus or a decrease in its budget deficit. D. a decrease in the government budget surplus or an increase in its budget deficit. Answer: C  Reference: Explanation: Type: Multiple Choice =&24=& An increase in the government’s budget surplus will cause the interest rate to: A. either increase or decrease. B. remain the same. C. increase. D. decrease. Answer: D  Reference: Explanation: Type: Multiple Choice =&25=& A decrease in the government’s budget surplus will cause the interest rate to: A. decrease. B. increase. C. either increase or decrease. D. remain the same. Answer: B  Reference: Explanation: Type: Multiple Choice =&26=& If the government initiates an expansionary monetary policy at the same time that its budget deficit decreases, then the interest rate will ______________________. A. increase B. either increase or decrease C. decrease D. remain unchanged Answer: C  Reference: Explanation: Type: Multiple Choice =&27=& If the government initiates an expansionary monetary policy at the same time that its budget deficit increases, then the interest rate will __________________. A. remain unchanged B. either increase or decrease C. increase D. decrease Answer: B  Reference: Explanation: Type: Multiple Choice =&28=& A ____________________________ is one economic mechanism by which government borrowing can crowd out private investment. A. deficit decrease B. smaller trade surplus C. larger trade surplus D. higher interest rate Answer: D  Reference: Explanation: Type: Multiple Choice =&29=& If a government’s budget deficits are increasing aggregate demand when the economy is already producing near potential GDP, causing a threat of an inflationary increase in price levels, then the central bank may react with: A. a contractionary monetary policy. B. an expansionary monetary policy. C. a discretionary monetary policy. D. a loose monetary policy. Answer: A  Reference: Explanation: Type: Multiple Choice =&30=& If the U.S. economy is producing at a level that is substantially less than potential GDP and the government’s budget deficits are increasing aggregate demand, then ____________________________ is not much of a danger. A. a tight monetary policy B. an inflationary increase in the price level C. international financial investment D. the central bank’s contractionary monetary policy Answer: B  Reference: Explanation: Type: Multiple Choice =&31=& If the U.S. government’s budget deficits are increasing aggregate demand, and the economy is producing at a level that is substantially less than potential GDP, then: A. higher interest rates will crowd out private investment. B. government borrowing is likely to crowd out private investment. C. an inflationary increase in the price level is a real danger. D. the central bank might react with an expansionary monetary policy. Answer: D  Reference: Explanation: Type: Multiple Choice =&32=& If the government’s budget deficit increases while the economy is producing substantially less then potential GDP and expansionary monetary policy is implemented, then any ________________ from government borrowing would be _____________________________ from that monetary policy. A. higher interest rates; largely offset by the lower interest rates B. lower interest rates; largely offset by the higher interest rates C. increase in interest rates; reduced by private sector investment D. inflationary increase in price level; crowding out private investment Answer: A  Reference: Explanation: Type: Multiple Choice =&33=& If a government decides to finance an investment in ________________ with higher taxes or ____________________ in other areas, it need not worry that it is crowding out private investment. A. roads and bridges; increased borrowing B. water supply and sewers; by raising capital spending C. public physical capital; lower government spending D. hydroelectric dams and windmills; government R&D Answer: C  Reference: Explanation: Type: Multiple Choice =&34=& In most developed countries, the government plays a large role in society’s investment in human capital through _________________________. A. direct spending B. the education system C. tax incentives D. private sector R&D Answer: B  Reference: Explanation: Type: Multiple Choice =&35=& In a market-oriented economy, private firms will undertake most of the _____________________________, and ________________ should seek to avoid a long series of large budget deficits that might crowd out such investment. A. economic growth activities; monetary policy B. economic growth activities; fiscal policy C. investment in human capital; monetary policy D. investment in physical capital; fiscal policy Answer: D  Reference: Explanation: Type: Multiple Choice =&36=& When a business firm makes an investment in physical capital, what is that investment subject to? A. state and local government incentives B. economic output and productivity C. political orientated incentives D. the discipline of the market Answer: D  Reference: Explanation: Type: Multiple Choice =&37=& Because of the difference between the discipline imposed by market competition and the discipline imposed by political decisions, which of the following is most likely? A. reduced government borrowing to avoid crowding out private investment B. difficulty managing public investment so it’s done in a cost effective way C. government budgets will exactly shadow the rate of private investment D. tax budgets increase without a corresponding drop in private investment Answer: B  Reference: Explanation: Type: Multiple Choice =&38=& An additional investment in human capital, especially for the low-income nations of the world, will likely directly increase which of the following? A. productivity and economic growth B. increased levels of R&D spending C. consumer orientated spin-offs D. highly qualified teachers Answer: A  Reference: Explanation: Type: Multiple Choice =&39=& A government will likely ____________________________ to encourage investment in technology R&D by private firms? A. reduce R&D grants to nonprofit organizations B. reduce R&D grants to universities C. spend more on R&D in government laboratories D. implement fiscal policy establishing tax incentives Answer: D  Reference: Explanation: Type: Multiple Choice =&40=& Which of the following is least likely to benefit the civilian economy? A. R&D carried out in government laboratories B. R&D aimed at producing new weapons C. direct private sector R&D spending D. tax policy promoting civilian R&D spending Answer: B  Reference: Explanation: Type: Multiple Choice =&41=& If David Ricardo’s theory holds completely true, then any change in budget deficits or budget surpluses would be completely offset by which of the following? A. a change in currency exchange rates B. a sustained pattern of trade imbalances C. a corresponding change in private saving D. a dependence on inflows of capital Answer: C  Reference: Explanation: Type: Multiple Choice =&42=& Ricardian equivalence means that: A. changes in private savings offset any changes in the government deficit. B. changes in exports offset any changes in the government deficit. C. changes in imports offset any changes in the government deficit. D. changes in investment offset any changes in the government deficit. Answer: A  Reference: Explanation: Type: Multiple Choice =&43=& Suppose you are analyzing data for an economy in which Ricardian neutrality holds true. If the budget deficit increases by 50, then: A. investment will increase by 50 B. investment will decrease by 50 C. private savings will decrease by 50 D. private savings will increase by 50 Answer: D  Reference: Explanation: Type: Multiple Choice =&44=& Suppose you are analyzing data for an economy in which Ricardian neutrality holds true.  If the budget surplus increases by 100, then: A. private savings will increase by 100. B. private savings will decrease by 100. C. investment will increase by 100. D. investment will decrease by 100. Answer: B  Reference: Explanation: Type: Multiple Choice =&45=& A government deficit has increased from 30 to 50. The country’s trade deficit is 100 and private savings equal 65 and investment equal 90. If Ricardian neutrality holds true, after this change in the government’s budget, private savings will equal: A. 40. B. 105. C. 95. D. 85. Answer: D  Reference: Explanation: Type: Multiple Choice =&46=& A government deficit has decreased from 100 to 60. The country’s trade deficit is 120 and private savings equal 80 and investment equals 100. If Ricardian neutrality holds true, after this change in the government’s budget, private savings will equal: A. 120. B. 70. C. 40. D. 140. Answer: C  Reference: Explanation: Type: Multiple Choice =&47=& If an economy has a budget surplus of 400, private savings of 1,200, and investment of 1,600, what will the balance of trade in this economy equal? A. 0 B. deficit of 1,600 C. deficit of 1,200 D. deficit of 400 Answer: A  Reference: Explanation: Type: Multiple Choice =&48=& If an economy has a budget surplus of 1,500, private savings of 3,000, and investment of 5,000, what will the balance of trade in this economy equal? A. deficit of 500 B. surplus of 500 C. surplus of 1,500 D. deficit of 1,500 Answer: B  Reference: Explanation: Type: Multiple Choice =&49=& If an economy has a budget deficit of 600, private savings of 2,000, and investment of 800.  What is the balance of trade in this economy? A. deficit of 600 B. deficit of 2000 C. surplus of 2000 D. surplus of 600 Answer: D  Reference: Explanation: Type: Multiple Choice =&50=& When government policy moves from a budget deficit to a budget surplus and the trade deficit remains constant: A. savings will increase if investment remains constant. B. investment will increase if savings remain constant. C. savings will decrease, no matter what happens to investment. D. investment will decrease if savings remain constant. Answer: B  Reference: Explanation: Type: Multiple Choice =&51=& When government policy moves from a budget surplus to a budget deficit and the trade deficit remains constant: A. savings will decrease no matter what happens to investment. B. savings will decrease if investment remains constant. C. investment will increase if savings also remains constant. D. investment will decrease if savings also remains constant. Answer: D  Reference: Explanation: Type: Multiple Choice =&52=& A government bu with a budget deficit and a trade deficit. During the year, the government changed its policy and is now running a budget surplus. If all other factors hold constant, this change in policy will cause: A. the exchange rate to decrease and the trade deficit to increase. B. the exchange rate to increase and the trade deficit to decrease. C. the exchange rate and the trade deficit to decrease. D. the exchange rate and the trade deficit to increase. Answer: C  Reference: Explanation: Type: Multiple Choice =&53=& A government began 2013 with a budget surplus and a trade deficit. Due to the onset of recession, the government changed its policy and is now running a budget deficit. If all other factors hold constant, this change in policy will cause: A. the exchange rate and the trade deficit to increase. B. the exchange rate and the trade deficit to decrease. C. the exchange rate to decrease and the trade deficit to increase. D. the exchange rate to increase and the trade deficit to decrease. Answer: A  Reference: Explanation: Type: Multiple Choice =&54=& Which of the following is not a consequence of an increase in the government’s budget deficit? A. private savings increases while holding everything else constant B. exports increase while imports and all other variables are held constant C. imports increase while exports and all other variables are held constant D. investment falls while holding everything else constant Answer: B  Reference: Explanation: Type: Multiple Choice =&55=& If a government experiences an increase in its budget surplus, which of the following possible outcomes will likely result? A. investment falls while everything else holds constant B. exports decrease while imports and all other variables are held constant C. imports increase while exports and all other variables are held constant D. private savings decrease while everything else holds constant Answer: D  Reference: Explanation: Type: Multiple Choice =&56=& A moderate increase in a budget deficit that leads to a _____________________ is not necessarily a cause for concern. A. combination of less foreign capital and banks that are bankrupt B. moderate increase in a trade deficit and a moderate appreciation of the exchange rate C. a series of large budget deficits D. shift in aggregate demand so far to the right that it causes high inflation Answer: B  Reference: Explanation: Type: Multiple Choice =&57=& In the U.S. economy, the offsetting effects of private saving compared to government borrowing are typically noted as being represented by which of the following ratios? A. much less than one-to-one B. slightly less than one-to-one C. slightly more than two-to-one D. much more than two-to-one Answer: A  Reference: Explanation: Type: Multiple Choice =&58=& _______________________________ can set the stage for international financial investors first to send their funds to a country and cause an appreciation of its exchange rate and then to pull their funds out and cause a depreciation of the exchange rate and a financial crisis as well. A. Trade balance B. Twin deficits C. Trade deficits D. Crowding out Answer: A  Reference: Explanation: Type: Multiple Choice

=&59=&  =&2=& Talona’s government has decided to fund its increasing budget deficit by raising capital in the international financial capital markets. Discuss the most likely outcomes that are closely associated this type of fiscal policy. If the funding for a larger budget deficit comes from international financial investors, then a budget deficit may be accompanied by a trade deficit. In some countries, this pattern of “twin deficits” has set the stage for international financial investors first to send their funds to a country and cause an appreciation of its exchange rate and then to pull their funds out and cause a depreciation of the exchange rate and a financial crisis as well. Reference: Explanation: Type: Essay =&3=& Identify the negative macroeconomic outcomes that a government risks when it continues a sustained pattern of large budget deficits over time. A sustained pattern of large budget deficits over time risks causing several negative macroeconomic outcomes: a shift to the right in aggregate demand that causes an inflationary increase in the price level; crowding out private investment in physical capital in a way that slows down economic growth; and creating a dependence on inflows of international portfolio investment which can sometimes turn into outflows of foreign financial investment that can be injurious to a macroeconomy. Reference: Explanation: Type: Essay =&4=& The Tulu Island economy is experiencing an inflow of foreign investment capital associated with a trade deficit. Foreign investors are making long-term direct physical capital investments in Tulu’s business community at a record pace. Relate whether there is cause for concern in this case, and briefly explain your answer. If a nation is experiencing the inflow of foreign investment capital associated with a trade deficit because foreign investors are making long-term direct investments in firms, there may be no substantial reason for concern. In this case, the inflows of foreign investment capital and the trade deficit are attracted by the opportunities for a good rate of return on private sector investment in an economy. Reference: Explanation: Type: Essay =&5=& Talona’s economy is experiencing an inflow of foreign investment capital associated with a trade deficit. Foreign investors are avoiding making long-term direct physical capital investments in Talona’s firms. Relate whether there is cause for concern in this case, and briefly explain your answer. In this case, the is cause for concern regarding the danger that arises in particular when the inflow of foreign investment capital is not funding long-term physical capital investment by firms, but instead is short-term portfolio investment in government bonds. Foreign financial investors will be on the alert for any reason to fear that the country’s exchange rate may decline or the government may be unable to repay what it has borrowed on time. A relatively small piece of bad news about an economy can trigger an enormous outflow of short-term financial capital Reference: Explanation: Type: Essay =&6=& Briefly explain what a change in any part of the national saving and investment identity points out. A change in any part of the national saving and investment identity points out that if the government budget deficit changes, then either saving, private investment in physical capital or the trade balance—or some combination of the three—must change as well. Reference: Explanation: Type: Essay =&7=& From a macroeconomic point of view, identify all of the possible sources for funds available to governments when they are borrowers in financial capital markets. When governments are borrowers in financial capital markets, there are three possible sources for the funds from a macroeconomic point of view: (1) households might save more; (2) private firms might borrow less; and (3) the funds might come outside the country, from foreign financial investors. Reference: Explanation: Type: Essay =&8=& In algebraic terms, contrast the national savings and investment identities noted below: 1) Private savings + Trade deficit + Government surplus = Private investment 2) Private savings = Private investment + Government budget deficit + Trade surplus. 1)  S + (M – X) + (T – G) = I 2)  S = I + (G – T) + (X – M) Reference: Explanation: Type: Essay =&9=& Identify and briefly discuss the underpinnings of economic growth, including examples. The underpinnings of economic growth are investments in physical capital, human capital, and technology, all set in an economic environment where firms and individuals can react to the incentives provided by well-functioning markets and flexible prices. Examples include government spending on publicly owned physical capital like roads or water systems, on education that creates human capital, or on research and development that creates new technology. Reference: Explanation: Type: Essay =&10=& Briefly discuss the macroeconomic benefits of a highly educated and skilled work force and then explain how government could do more to encourage increased R&D activities. A highly educated and skilled workforce contributes to a higher rate of economic growth, and especially for the low-income nations of the world, an additional investment in human capital seems likely to increase productivity and growth. Government could spend more on the R&D that is carried out in government laboratories, as well as expanding federal R&D grants to universities and colleges, nonprofit organizations, and the private sector. Fiscal policy can also support R&D through tax incentives, which allow firms to reduce their tax bill as they increase spending on research and development. Reference: Explanation: Type: Essay =&11=& Explain why it is hard to draw a general lesson about how much government investment in physical capital will benefit the economy. Contrast a firm making an investment in physical capital with the government financing an investment in public physical capital. It is hard to draw a general lesson about how much government investment in physical capital will benefit the economy, because government responds to political incentives as well as to economic incentives. When a firm makes an investment in physical capital it is subject to the discipline of the market: if the firm doesn’t receive a positive return on its investment, the firm may lose money or even go out of business. Managing public investment so that it is done in a cost-effective way can be difficult, because the discipline imposed by political decisions is different than the discipline imposed by market competition. If a government decides to finance an investment in public physical capital with higher taxes or lower government spending in other areas, it need not worry that it is crowding out private investment. However, if a government decides to finance an investment in public physical capital by borrowing, it may end up increasing the quantity of public physical capital at the cost of crowding out investment in private physical capital.

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Solved: Ethical Culture, GM Case Study

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Ethical Culture, GM Case Study Student’s Name Institutional Affiliation =&0=& =&1=& About 800, 000 of general motor’s cars had engine shut down due to failure of the ignition switches. It often occurred when the vehicles were in motion hence most accidents were caused resulting into several deaths. For years, general motors never discovered that the problem was with their ignition switches. A lot of funds were compensated for the deaths caused. Despite GM discovering the cause for the accidents caused were due to faulty ignition switches, the information was disclosed for about fifteen years. Research reveals that the cause for the information disclosure was dur to ethical lapse in the corporate company. It took more than a decade for the government to discover that more than 2.6 million cars got damaged and caused accident due to faulty ignition switches. There was liaise with the federal prosecutors to announce a fine of 900 million US dollars to end the criminal investigations. Besides, they were to adhere to some terms and conditions for the coming three years. There are main events that occurred during the recall =&2=&  In February 2002, Engineer Ray DeGiorgio who specialized in ignition switches designed an ignition switch. According to the quality assurance team the standards of the gadget did not meet GM’s specifications. However, the switch was later used in Saturn Ion and later in Chevrolet Cobalt despite it being identified that it was below the standards. The switch was then used in Saturn Sky, Chevrolet HHR, PontiacG5 and Solstice. In 20005 a Chevrolet Cobalt owner, Amber Rose, got involved in an accident and died. Investigations showed that the frontal crash resulted from faulty switches which changed positions from the run to accessory hence resulting into cut off power to the airbags, steering and brakes. It led to a fatal accident. To resolve the situation, Engineer Ray signed a redesign of the ignition switch but in his redesign the part number is not changed. It led to uncertainties as to whether the changes were made or not. The alleged redesigned switch was used in cars from 2007. In 2013 the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) declined to open investigations as to why Cobalt and Ion did not have proper air bags regarding several accidents that occurred during that period. NHTSA claimed that GM concealed important information hence preventing them from going further with the investigations. A new CEO, Mary Barra, discovered in 2013 that there was an issue with the ignition switches in GM. Around February 2013, GM recalled 1.6 million cars to repair spoiled ignition switches, the number later grew to 2.6 million cars. General Motors received a fine of $35 million by US government for failing to reveal the cause of the problem early enough. GM paid then fine and admitted to give a report on the government’s demands and its safety operations in good time. In June 2014, Barra released a report which were investigations conducted by prosecutor Anton. Barra stated that regarding the investigations, 15 employees were retrenched and five have undergone penalties due to their actions. The CEO agreed to compensate fund to victims who reported companies as from the first day of August. It was discovered that defective switches resulted into 275 injuries and 124 deaths and each victim’s family will be compensated at least 1 million dollars. The company had 625 million dollars for the compensation process.

General Motor’s actions towards the issue

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General Motor’s issue on defective ignition switches not only costed the company a lot of money but also tarnished its name to the public. Since the issues were related to ethics and culture, the company decided to review and publish its ethical codes. All employees were required to read, sign and follow the ethical codes of conduct failure to which punishments will be applied. By GM resorting to admit they had faulty switches, they chose on the engineering code of ethics other than profitability. Regarding GM’s failure in culture and leadership, the code of ethics had to cover the entire stakeholders involed in the company’s operations from the junior most to senior most positions. Their code of ethics addressed issues on integrity and the company’s terms and values. Among the code’s listed was the significance of speaking up in case there are corruption or misconduct issues. The company majors on safety, identification and resolving the problems encountered. Among the issues listed are accountability, conflict resolution, management of resources and reporting of misbehavior such as theft, violence and fraud. The speak up policy was meant to encourage the employees to report any misconduct they observe without fear of being harmed or retrenched. The company also resorted to improving vehicle safety. The employees had to understand the codes of ethics including the repercussions of committing crimes. They resorted that their first priority as a company will be safety.

Recommendations of possible solutions to GM’s problem

Studies show that ethics is controlled by culture. A large number of employees at GM decided to remain silent about the ignition switches which resulted to several deaths, this clearly shows that a company can have well laid out codes of ethics but no satisfiable integrity. It is not only enough to pass good laws regarding some policies in the company, but also important for employees to use their common sense and have a sense of humanity in them. Employees need to have good morals and the desire to do the right thing and be accountable. The leaders should be ready for any crisis and also be able to lead under the company under turbulence for the sake of positive transformation of the employees. Corruption is secretive, culture change is gradual. Problem acceptance is an important way of solving ethical issues in an organization. Deploying other stakeholders to investigate the company’s problems also helps identify the issues. Valukas’ report regarding the switch issues in GM shows a problem of silence and concealment. After it was discovered that the switches designed by engineer ray has a lower torque spec. the engineer was under pressure to deliver a less costly ignition switch and culture encouraged this behavior. In conducting investigations, witnesses from top most executive positions also need to be spotted.             General Motors learned a lot of lessons from the ordeal, they realized that a lot of effort and resources should be geared towards ensuring that the environment is ethically heathy and that employees have the right morals. Leaders living on assumptions that their employees will always do the right thing can result into discovery of misconducts later after a damage is made. Organizational leaders need to know their organizational culture, this can only be identified through proper communication. When communication is functional from the junior employees and up through the senior, discovering a problem would be easier. There could be information that a lot of employees are aware of but the CEO has no idea about them. Such matters can only be addressed through constant communication through meetings and emails. Employees also need to communicate any misconduct happening in the organization. A culture of integrity and honesty need to be nurtured in organizations. The only way this can be done is when the leaders do thorough inspection in the company and interact with employees at personal level. By creating a conducive environment and being approachable, knowing what is happening in the business will be made easier. After a mistake is identified, leaders should learn and adapt to the current situations of the organization. They ought to quickly notice possibilities and solutions to the crisis. They need to only expect trustworthiness if it is more inclined to viewing the positive side of the crisis. =&6=& It took about fifteen years for managers to release bad news about the faulty ignition switches in general motors. For the news to be out, the managers had to go back to history and understand how it all began. Emphasis of employees doing the right thing and being honest helps eliminate the chances of nurturing bad culture into the business environment. Organizations should concentrate more on their consumers safety other than profitability. They need not to wait until several cases are reported on the consequences of their actions for them to release their reports. Managers should be well prepared for tragedy and crisis and be able to survive through such atmosphere.

 

References

Wanasika, I., & Conner, S. L. (2018). General Motors: The ignition switch from hell. Journal of Case Studies36(2), 66-81. Cheng, Y. (2017, March). Examining the Business Outcomes of Media Coverage in the General Motor Recall Crisis: An Exploratory Study. In 20TH INTERNATIONAL PUBLIC RELATIONS RESEARCH CONFERENCE (p. 22). Maiorescu, R. D. (2016). Crisis management at General Motors and Toyota: An analysis of gender-specific communication and media coverage. Public Relations Review42(4), 556-563. Shepherd, I. J., & Vardiman, P. (2016). The General Motors Ignition Switch Incident Viewed Through a Proposed Economic Impact Severity Index. Journal of Management Policy and Practice17(1). Stephan, K. (2016). GM Ignition Switch Recall: Too Little Too Late?[Ethical Dilemmas].  VIEW SOLUTION

A FEASIBILITY STUDY ON CREATING A LUXURY HOTEL BRAND THAT MEETS THE NEEDS OF ALL GUESTS IN NAIROBI- KENYA

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METHODOLOGY=&1=& 3.0 Introduction=&3=&=&4=&             This chapter presents the procedures and the methods the researcher employed to carry out the study. The section comprises of the research design, target population, sample and sampling procedures, data collecting instruments and procedures and methods of data analysis. 3.1 Qualitative Analysis=&4=& In the data analysis for qualitative data the researcher intend to collect data first, organize the data and analyze it, code the data, create and interpret themes and descriptions (Creswell and Creswell, 2018). Through this, the data will be able to reflect the various trends that the researcher is looking for. Additionally, this will make it easier and more efficient to carry out the research. Qualitative data will be collected by the use of interviews (Course.ccs.neu.edu, n.d.). The interviews will be non-standardized and will be done face to face (Hakansson A, 2013). The questions will be semi structured to allow open ended questions and multiple choice questions (adapted from Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, 2007). Such interviews will be used to survey issues of concerns to tourists and other hotel users from the managers perspective to give an insight regarding luxury and consumer satisfaction. The survey also will give insight into the preferences of the accommodation facilities available as well as the desired ones (Austin and Sutton, 2015). Some of the   advantages that will favor the   researcher to use the secondary data is due to it being cheaper than primary data. (Gail Joiner, 2018) someone else can also use the secondary data other the original researcher. It could be useful to do a qualitative research to understand customers preferences compared to other methods. Secondary data tend to be faster than the primary data and more power and convenient, which can help in getting broad question at a large scale. Having being clear with all those advantages of secondary data it will be better than using primary data which at time. Primary data will be so involving and will take a lot of time compared to the secondary data which is very easy and rapid. Looking at the disadvantage that comes with qualitative analysis, it is renowned to be subjective since its emphasis lies on meanings, and experiences among other things. 3.2 Data Collection=&4=& Since this paper will be reviewing a large pool of data concerning luxury hotels in the city, the data collection will majorly rely on secondary sources.   Taylor, Bogdan & DeVault, (2015) state that secondary sources contribute in raising insight and giving background information need to meet the research aim. Secondary data will include the use of relevant sources such as academic articles and theoretical models to give insights and direction regarding the study objectives. This preference is advantageous for this research taking into consideration of time and credibility of the information collected from these sources. Moreso, Marshall, (2003)statethatthereisthedepthofinformationthatisdifficulttocaptureinwhileusing primary data. Additionally, there is a higher chance of obtaining s greater insight as compared to using primary data. Also, there is the probability of obtaining greater information which will be able to project the future of the industry. 3.3 Data Analysis=&4=& In this chapter, there is a comprehensive summary of all the data analyzed together with the interpretations and findings. For instance, one research had 60 respondents though not all the respondents handed back their questionnaires at the end of the survey. This showed that the  survey  was  successful  with  93.4%  of  the  population  giving  their  views. , god 1986) h a y s s d to d to e t p e   t   d   e   n   e   d   %   n   . e   y   d   csfesgr,,drl.eecene x In analyzing the data, a cross-sectional kind of survey was applied which made it possible in providing a holistic and an in-depth insight understanding that was much generalized in the search for the need to set up a luxury hotel brand in Nairobi-Kenya (Gupta, 2004). The most important thing with a cross-sectional design is that it gives room for a researcher to analyze different variables available at a given point of time in a particular population target. 3.4 Target Population=&4=& The target study population was on the employees at Hilton hotel which is approximately The focus of the entire research on the Sales, Room Operators, Marketing, and the Human Resource departments each with different number of permanent employees in the hotel.The main idea behind the choice of these departments is because they directly affect both the customer quality output, the hotel employee performance, and the quality expectations of incoming customers in the hotel (Austin & Sutton, 2015). 3.5 Sampling=&4=&           A sample is a group of objects, people, or items collected from a larger populace for measurement. The sample should be demonstrative of the people to ensure that we can simplify the findings from the study (Course.ccs.neu.edu. (n.d.). In particular, sampling is used to draw decisions about populaces from samples, we must use inferential figures, to allow for the determination of a populations features by straight observing one portion or sample of the population (Austin & Sutton, 2015).. Therefore, a population sample is obtained for a number of reasons as it is generally not applied. 3.5.1 Selecting a Sample=&1=&           A sample is anticipated to reflect the population in which it comes from, however, there is no assurance that any trial will be an exact representation of the population. Chance may decree that an uneven quantity of untypical remarks will be observed (Kb.wisc.edu. 2016). Therefore, a Sampling error can make a sample to be regarded with suspicion about the population. Sampling errorencompassesthevariancesbetweenthepopulationandthesamplethatareduemerelyto the specific participants that have been carefully chosen (Kiplagat, Makindi & Obweyere, 2014).           The key cause of sampling error is that the error that arises is due to bad luck which may result in untypical selections.  Uncommon  units  in  a  populace  do  occur  and  there  is  at  all  times  a likelihood that an unusually large number of them will be selected. The main defense compared tothiskindoferroristouseahugeenoughsample(Marshall,1996). Thesamplingerrormay be owed to either chance or bias. The chance module which is at times also referred to a random error occurs no matter how cautiously the collection procedures are applied, and the lone way to lessen errors of chance-sampling is to choose an adequately large sample (Murgan, 2015). 3.5.2 Sample=&1=&           The focus of the data search has been on the actual market for luxury hotels in Nairobi. The sample taken in consideration represent the 13% of the total (459) of Hotels with*=89a89*=stars. They have  been  selected  by  considering  the  region  in  which  the  hotels  are  located.Aproblem encountered during this search has been the presence of particular cases in which the price was exceptionally high, due the particular location. The city center stands above all of the other locations, as hotels in the former locations they can even have prices of six times higher than the average hotel prices of the other locations. Similarly, some areas in Mombasa has higher than averageprices(Taylor,Bogdan&DeVault,2015). ThecityofMombasahasbeenexcludedby the researcher, as their situation and target are different from the one investigated in this study. The other cases are trickier, as it has to be evaluated how much the price is affected by the popularity of the cities in which the hotels are the attractions of the above-mentioned city (both historicalandsecular),thepresenceoftheoceanandtheactualofferofthestructure(Ness, 2015). Hotels in other large and famous cities, like Rome or Milan, have been in the average and have been included in the research. Even if hotels located in these cities may have less facilities, this is generally balanced by their central position. =&19=&=&20=& A study population should be first thought of before deciding on how large a population should be and who or what to include or exclude form the population (Creswell, & Creswell, Therefore,thesamplesizecanbedeterminedbyanumberofconstraintsforinstance, time constraints and the funds available (Kb.wisc.edu. 2016).The sample size relies on the nature of data analysis to be conducted, the anticipated precision of the approximations one desires  to  attain,  the  number  and  kind  of  contrasts  that  will  be  completed,  the  number  of variablestobeexaminedconcurrently,lastlyishowvariedtheexperimentedpopulationis (Joppe, 2000). =&21=&=&20=& 3.5.3 Sampling Design=&1=& Although the researcher would like to work with a larger population get credible information, the sample that will be used will be designed to meet manageable attributes in terms of time and financial resources (Saunders et al., 2016: 272). The sample the researcher intend to useisnon-probabilitysamplingsinceourpopulationisselectedonthebasisofaknown/visible characteristic (Lunenburg and Irby, 2008). Interviews will be done to various managers in the 5 hotel facilities that have been rated 5 star luxury hotels in the city (Murgan, 2015). Mangers from from Holton Hotel, Intercontinental Hotel, Kempinsky Hotel, Serena Hotel, and Sankara Hotel were interviewed. Through the use of simple stratifies sampling, the research will be strategically targeted towards collecting a sample from the available*=76a76*=star rated hotels within the country. ith this method, it will be easier to collect and understand the characteristics of the market as well as the consumer preferences. ith this in mind, the division of the strata will help in better understanding the whole hotel industry in Nairobi. The researcher will also use some of semi structured forms of questions such as the success in land of different new clients an also strategic planning skills and strong supervisory skills (Murgan, 2015). 3.6 Population of Study=&4=& Population entails the entities to be researched (Marshall, 1996). In the case of this study, the research seeks to concentrate on 5 star hotel managers in Nairobi. From this population, the researcher intends to have at least three respondents from each of the hotel chosen population (Joppe, 2000). Collection of results from the interviews conducted will be non-standardized data, the data will be grouped and analyzed based on meanings expressed through words, and the analysis will be conducted through use of conceptualization to deduce the results of the research (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, 2012). Since there is a limited number of hotels rated 5 star, there is a chance that the research will be able to concentrate and identify the ideal characteristics of an individual hotel. Additionally, the researcher will be able to collect information that is universally identifiable among the selected samples. Researching a population that has similar characteristics will be advantageous since it will help with identification of the challenges that all generally face the population. More so, this will make is cost efficient and effective to collect information in regard to the customer base and the strategies used by management in running the hotels. The small sample collected from the study will also help the researcher narrow down the objectives of the study, providing insight in the research. Findings and Analysis=&1=& 4.0 Introduction=&4=& 4.1 Findings from Interviews=&4=& l demand for the proposed project from both association and corporate meeing was conducted on managers. Additionally, we conducted inteviews wih managers in order to determine the types of events that would be attracted to the proposed projet n Nairobi. In general, the responses to our surveys resuled in a relatively lw projected level of usageas comparedtoothersurveysofthis type.   Thisinditesthatasubstantial marketing effort wille requiredo bothnter negative perceptions ad to then create competitive advantages versus other regional convention destinations. For example, the downtown historic attractions could be pakaged to provide a reason for onventions and tour and travel groups to both cometo downtown nd to stay overnight. Following are summares of the results of these surveys.             Four of the managers indicated that their organization had useda hotel/convention/conference facility within te past five years for their meeting needs, primarily for trade shows and annual conventions. Of those 5 managers only the Hilton and Sankara Hotel managbers indiated that they had used a hotel/onvention/conference facility located in Nairobi for international events within a year. Te facilities they incated usig (both within and outside of Nairobi) were generally located in large metropolitan markets. Further, many of the destinations cited as favorable for their clients are located in warm weather areas to the south and west of the subject market area. Based on he survey feedback from the manager of Kempinsky Hotel, eak perios of demand for convention center utilization occurs between Sepember and Novembe, as evidenced by nearly 80 percent of the clients being recorded in. This indicated that their evens occur within this time frame.             The  following  table  details  the  average  rting  indiated  by  respondents  to  varios factors as they relate to the selection of a Hotel/Covention/Cnference facility. The range of rating levels was betwen zero (not important) and five (extremely important). As the data indiates, critical factors inclded air traffic accessibility, free (or low cost) parking, and availability of restaurant/nightlife options. As with many convention center facilities in downtown locations, vailbility nd cost of parking is a sigificat factor with eventcoordinatorsandtheirconstituents,andNairobimustbeproactive in addresng this isue so that it does not become a competitive disadantage when marketing the proposed facility to potential emand sorces.
Average Rating of Factors in Selecting a Hotel/ Convention/ Conference Facility
Factor
Rating(0-5)
Air Travel Accessibility
Roadway Travel Accessibility Major Market (i.e. Philadelphia) Free (or low cost) Parking Adjacent Hotel
Local Culture
Tourism Infrastructure
Restaurants
Nightlife – Bars/Clubs
Anticipated Cost per Attendee
4.3
3.2
3.5
4.0
2.7
2.8
2.8
3.3
3.9
3.0
Note: 0 = Not Important, 5 = Extremely Important
Source: PKF Consulting
Table =&34=& VIEW SOLUTION

Soltution: The Impact the Navy had on Civil War

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The book that is titled Divided Waters: The Naval History of the Civil War was authored by Ivan Musicant. It details the effect that the navy had on the civil war in the United States of America. The civil war took place both in

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Movie Analysis: Assassination – Korean History

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The 2015 film titled Assassination is an exciting movie that stipulates that struggle that Korea endured before gaining independence from Japan (Viki, n.d.). It begins with a ploy by a resistance fighter called Yem Sek-jin who unsuccessfully tried to murder Kang In-guk, who was a pro-Japanese businessman and the governor-general (Viki, n.d.). Kang later realizes that the wife was part of the scheme to assassinate him which, makes him kill the wife with whom they had twin girls. A nurse, however, happens, to escape with the twin girls who later play starring roles in the film. By 1933 more than 30 factions located in Manchuria, China, and Korea had been formed to agitate for independence. Yem became the captain of one of the wings but unknown to them he had been tortured into submission by the Japanese, thus making him a spy for them.

It is evident from the movie that collaboration

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Accounting

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 Sarbanes Oxley act is meant to reduce the degree of fraud by far in any organization through application of elements constituted in the act. In the case of Rite- Aid, corporate responsibility as highlighted in the act could have played a role in salvaging the company downfall. Corporate responsibility involves the senior executive of an organization taking individual responsibility for completeness and accuracy of the company financial report. The fall of Rite- Aid was preceded by series of unaccounted and unfair transactions, which clearly demonstrate lack of corporate responsibility among the CEO and other senior managements (En.wikipedia.org, 2019).  The other element highlighted in the act such as enhanced financial disclosure would have reduced the risk of fraud by greater depth, errors and fraudulent activities would have been detected in the early stages of the unethical practices and the problem rooted out before massive damage occur. The auditor’s independence in the case of Rite- Aid was ignored as Michael grass would frustrate the independent of the independent auditor. Independent auditing meant that the misstated financial statement provided to the shareholder would have been noticed as the auditor did his work. It is evident that the risk of fraud would have been reduced if the auditors were able to express their independent fair and true view of the company financial statement (Sec.gov, 2019) Q2 The first recommendation would be to ensure that there is no existence of conflict of interest among employees of the organization and especially the senior management. The decision the management makes at time are influenced by personal interest that arise in case of a conflict of interest. The internal control system within organization should be enhanced through establishment of an internal audit committee that should keep affairs of the company in control. Internal auditors are able to establish mistake within the organization the organization as well as keep things in order within the company. The success of company is mainly dependent on the laid down internal control systems that are used to provide oversight to all employees and the management of the organization. Another recommendation would be establishment of policies that ensure accurate, reporting and full disclosure of financial report to the shareholder and other interested parties within the organization. The establishment of whistle blower policy can also work a great deal in helping identifying fraud as well preventing future fraudulent activities to occur. The whistle blower policy involves the individual of an organization raising a red flag in case they notice any suspicious activity within the company operating and management system (pennlive.com, 2019) Q3 The recommendation highlighted above will positively affect the operation of business. With a good control system, a company is able to manage its affair in a matter that pleases the potential investors and access to investors’ fund may not be a problem. A proper internal control system also gives preference to customer’s (both international and local) satisfaction rather than focusing on profit alone. This satisfactory services are known to attract new potential customers as well as maintain the existing one. The recommendation outlined also point to the direction of company’s success; if the recommendation works properly the company will achieve a good rating among its competitors as well create a good brand image. This aspect of good ratings and good brand image also attracts the best performing and experienced chief executive officer and board members who are able to drive the company’s agenda to achieving the its objectives. The whistle blower policy notifies the company of any fraud and shareholders fund are protected meaning their investments gives a high return. The shareholder with guarantee of safeguarded fund and investment are able to pump in more fund into the company and hence keep the company afloat and with finances to explore many diverse investment opportunities managements (En.wikipedia.org, 2019).  References Sec.gov. (2019). SEC Announces Fraud Charges Against Former Rite Aid Senior Management. [online] Available at:  https://www.sec.gov/news/press/2002-92.htm [Accessed 11 Sep. 2019].. En.wikipedia.org. (2019). Sarbanes–Oxley Act. [online] Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sarbanes%E2%80%93Oxley_Act [Accessed 11 Sep. 2019] pennlive.com. (2019). [online] Available at: https://www.pennlive.com/news/2016/02/rite_aids_rise_and_fall_a_time.html [Accessed 11 Sep. 2019]

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